The Vermont Chapter will receive a Continuing Publication Commendation from the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) for its monthly newsletter, Green Mountain Specifier. Christopher Eling, CSI, CDT, editor of the newsletter, will accept the award April 21, 2004 during the Opening General Session of The 48th Annual CSI Showä & Convention.CSI presents a Continuing Publication Commendation to individuals, chapters, firms, or organizations for outstanding publications in areas related to the Institute. The Vermont Chapter nominated Eling and the Green Mountain Specifier for:- Consistently providing the construction community with news from the chapter, region, and Institute- Publishing technical and educational articles by members and industry experts- Reviewing past, present and future chapter programs- Recognizing new members- Promoting and recognizing certification and member accomplishmentsThe Green Mountain Specifier is published 10 times each year.Eling has been a member of CSI for three years, and works for Peter Morris Architect in Vergennes, VT.The Opening General Session will take place on Wednesday, April 21, in Chicago, and will be open to the public. For more information about the Show & Convention, visit www.thecsishow.com(link is external).The Vermont Chapter of the Construction Specifications Institute will receive both of this year’s Chapter Cup awards during the Institute’s Annual Meeting on Saturday, April 24th in Chicago. CSI awards two Chapter Cups each year to recognize the chapters that grew the most during the previous calendar year. Because one cup is awarded based on percentage growth in membership, and the other based on net growth, it is unprecedented that a single chapter wins both cups in one year.The Vermont Chapter grew from 57 to 126 members last year, a 122 percent increase. The Vermont Chapter was chartered in May 1968 with 30 members. The chapter has been active and growing in recent years, and was able to take home Chapter Cup awards for highest percentage growth in 2000 and 2001.Vermont leaders credit their success to a strong continuing education program for construction practitioners and efforts to reach students in construction-related programs at Norwich University and Vermont Technical College.About CSICSI is a national association of specifiers, architects, engineers, contractors, building materials suppliers and others involved in nonresidential building design and construction.
Butterflies may not have a human’s sharp vision, but their eyes beat us in other ways. Their visual fields are larger, they’re better at perceiving fast-moving objects, and they can distinguish ultraviolet and polarized light. Now, it turns out that one species of swallowtail butterfly from Australasia, the common bluebottle (Graphium sarpedon, pictured), known for its conspicuous blue-green markings, is even better equipped for such visual tasks. Each of their eyes, scientists report in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, contains at least 15 different types of photoreceptors, the light-detecting cells required for color vision. These are comparable to the rods and cones found in our eyes. To understand how the spectrally complex retinas of butterflies evolved, the researchers used physiological, anatomical, and molecular experiments to examine the eyes of 200 male bluebottles collected in Japan. (Only males were used because the scientists failed to catch a sufficient number of females.) They found that different colors stimulate each class of receptor. For instance, UV light stimulates one, while slightly different blue lights set off three others; and green lights trigger four more. Most insect species have only three classes of photoreceptors. Even humans have only three cones, yet we still see millions of colors. Butterflies need only four receptor classes for color vision, including spectra in the UV region. So why did this species evolve 11 more? The scientists suspect that some of the receptors must be tuned to perceive specific things of great ecological importance to these iridescent butterflies—such as sex. For instance, with eyes alert to the slightest variation in the blue-green spectrum, male bluebottles can spot and chase their rivals, even when they’re flying against a blue sky.